STATES OF MATTER/ MATTER
-There are three states of matter.
Solid, Liquid, and Gas
-Materials can be classified as solids, liquids, or gases based on weather their shapes and volumes are definite or variable.
-Solid: The state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and a definite volume.
-Definite means it wont change shape and volume just by being moved.
-Liquid: The state of matter that has a definite volume but not a definite shape.
-Gas: The state of matter in which a material has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume.
-There is one other state that matter can exist in. It is found on very hot places such as stars, or the sun with very high temperatures. It is called Plasma.
-Matter: The shape of an object.
-Phase Change: A reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another.
-Energy is either absorbed or released during the change.
-These changes can be classified in two ways. Endothermic and Exothermic.
-Endothermic: Absorbs energy.
-Exothermic: Releases energy.
-Heat of Fusion: Amount of energy required to change from a solid to a liquid.
-Heat of Vaporization: Amount of energy needed to change from a liquid to a gas.
-There are multiple types of phase changes.
-Sublimation: The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas without going into a liquid first.
-Melting: The phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
-Vaporization: The phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid to a gas.
-Freezing: The phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
-Condensation: The phase change in which a substance changes from a gas to a liquid.
-Deposition: The phase change in which a gas changes directly into a solid without first changing to a liquid.
-These graphs are very simple. They show what happens to a sample of something as it is slowly heated, the state it is in.
PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES/CHANGES
-Physical Property: Any characteristic of a material you can observe without changing the substance that make up the material.
-length -temperature -mass -boiling point -volume -melting point
-odor -texture -sticky -solubility -stretchable -luster
-taste -magnetic -malleability -hard/soft
-Physical Change: A change that does not alter the identity of substances in a material.
-Ability to undergo a chemical change.
-Ex: Flammability is the ability to burn.
-Reacts with light.
-Reacts with oxygen.
-Reacts with water.
-Reacts with acid.
-It can form a precipitate.
-It can change a substance into new substances.
-Examples: rusting, burning, tarnishing, formation of a precipitate
-Chemical Change Examples: fizzing, bubbling, color change.